# Cybernetic

Human organism is complex, adaptive, self-regulating cybernetic system (kybernÃ¢o = to guide, sÃ½stema = orderly distribution) introduced by Wiener. These components interact in parallel, cooperatively, and in real time, creating multiple simultaneous interactions among subsystems and homeostasis is attained by feedback.

The systems approach explains small variation can produce a major change. And Variety (V) represents the freedom the system has in choosing a particular state. A variety of one bit, V=1, means that the system has two possible states. In the simplest case of n binary variables, V = log2(2n) = n is therefore equal to the minimal number of independent dimensions. The actual variety of states is smaller due to the factors of constraint such as body temperature at above 42 degree Celsius which denature protein. The change in the variety (positive increase or negative decrease) creates uncertainty but the occurrence of any possibilities provide information. Information is passed by feedback, on binary principle. Homeostatic system function as Self-organising and Autonomous, open to information as well as energy and matter. Informational flow is achieved by nerve impulses and biologically active molecules which communicate via cellular membrane receptors or cytokines of ground regulating system.

Biological systems are governed by universal thermodynamic principles that apply equally to every system of this universe. The first law says that the total quantity of energy in the universe remains constant and the second law states that the energy is irreversibly transformed into heat or entropy (from the Greek entrope, change).

Entropy (or uncertainty) and its complement, information, are quantitive measures in cybernetics, and qualitative concepts of variety and constraint as probabilistic values. Heisenbergâ€™s Uncertainty Principle can be applied to the study of systems. Precise state of a system can be calculated by the probability distribution and variety is expressed as entropy for statistical mechanics (Boltzmann).